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Animal did you knows 2

Did you know elephants sleep between 4 - 5 hours in 24 period
Did you know it's possible to lead a cow up stairs but not down
Did you know frogs can't swallow with their eyes open
Did you know elephants are the only mammal that can't jump
Did you know frogs don’t drink (they absorb water through their skin)
Did you know at birth dalmations are always white
Did you know hummingbirds are the only bird that can fly backwards
Did you know a duck can't walk without bobbing its head
Did you know a hummingbird's heart beats at over a 1,000 times a minute
Did you know dragonflies have 6 legs but can't walk
Did you know a crocodile can't move its tongue
Did you know hippopotamuses have killed more people in Africa than any other animal
Did you know an elephants ears are used to regulate body temperature
Did you know bats always turn left when exiting a cave
Did you know crocodiles never outgrow their enclosure
Did you know reindeer hair is hollow inside like a tube
Did you know cows don't have upper front teeth
Did you know an octopus pupil is rectangular
Did you know cats can't move their jaw sideways
Did you know its physically impossible for pigs to look up at the sky

Animal did you knows 1

Did you know a bear has 42 teeth
Did you know an ostrich's eye is bigger than it's brain
Did you know most lipsticks contain fish scales
Did you know rabbits like licorice
Did you know a lobsters blood is colorless but when exposed to oxygen it turns blue
Did you know armadillos have 4 babies at a time and are all the same sex
Did you know reindeer like bananas
Did you know the longest recorded flight of a chicken was 13 seconds
Did you know birds need gravity to swallow
Did you know a cat has 32 muscles in each ear
Did you know goldfish can see both infrared and ultraviolet light
Did you know cats spend 66% of their life asleep
Did you know macadamia nuts are toxic to dogs
Did you know spiders are arachnids and not insects
Did you know Koalas sleep around 18 hours a day
Did you know all insects have 6 legs
Did you know African Grey Parrots have vocabularies of over 200 words
Did you know a giraffe can clean its ears with its 21 inch tongue
Did you know cats have over 100 vocal chords
Did you know camel's milk doesn't curdle

Alphabet did you knows

Did you know the Hawaiian alphabet has 12 letters
Did you know the most commonly used letter in the alphabet is E
Did you know the least used letter in the alphabet is Q
Did you know if you try to say the alphabet without moving your lips or tongue every letter will sound the same
Did you know the sentence "the quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog" uses every letter in the English alphabet
Did you know the word 'rhythm' is the longest word without a vowel
Did you know the letter W is the only letter in the alphabet that has 3 syllables (all others have 1)
Did you know 1 out of every 8 letters written is an e
Did you know the Cambodian alphabet has 74 letters

Is it?? Surprising first careers of famous people

Walt Disney and Mickey Mouse

If you’re experiencing some vocational unrest and are worried you’re unqualified for anything other than what your university degree directly prepare you for, don’t discredit the possibility of a career shift. Switching jobs and even industries is becoming more common due to new economic conditions and the increase in adult and continuing education programs. You don’t need to have been a part of the field for 30 years to become successful or a high-profile leader, either. Just look at some surprising first careers of influential figures, including presidents, entertainers and entrepreneurs.
Walt Disney and Mickey MouseWalt Disney, newspaper ad designer: Walt Disney experienced a lot of failure on his way to becoming one of the most successful entertainment entrepreneurs in the world: He was rejected by the army and struggled to find work after WWI. He finally got a job working as a designer for newspaper, movie theater and magazine ads at an art studio. Disney only worked as a temp, and after struggling to start his own business, he began studying animation at a new job for another ad company.
Dan Brown, singer-songwriter: Dan Brown started a huge sensation and a lot of debate within the Catholic community and among pop culture fans when he published his novel The Da Vinci Code. But besides the controversy, Brown’s work of fiction can at least be credited with getting a lot of adults interested in reading again. The creator of Langdon was a puzzle and anagram freak as a kid and studied writing at Amherst College. But as the son of an organist mother, Brown also had an interest and talent for music: after graduation, he moved to Hollywood as a singer-songwriter and pianist and even joined the National Academy of Songwriters. He released two CDs in the early 90s, including one entitled Angels & Demons, moved back home to teach middle school Spanish, and soon began writing thrillers.
Martha Stewart, stock broker: Martha Stewart got into some trouble recently over some insider trading, obstruction of justice and then lying about it all, and many long-time fans of Martha’s place settings and holiday decorating wondered how she got involved in such a mess in the first place. But before Martha Stewart was the goddess of domesticity, she was, in fact, a stockbroker. She graduated from Barnard with degrees in history and architectural history after first dropping out to model, and soon became a stockbroker. After moving to Connecticut with her husband and young son, Stewart left her job — she claims to have wanted to spend more time with her family, but others believe she was escaping a scandal.
Sheryl Crow, music teacher: Upbeat but soulful singer, songwriter and guitarist Sheryl Crow has enjoyed a long-lasting career that incorporates all types of music genres and often rewards her with high-profile collaborations and honors. And while the Missouri native was always interested in music — she wrote her first song when she was only 13 — Crow chose to teach music to autistic children after graduating from college before moving to LA to join the industry.
Ina Garten, White House nuclear policy analyst: The charmingly high brow Barefoot Contessa — whose real name is Ina Garten — has a loyal fan base all over the country who follow her TV show and have tried out recipes from her seven cookbooks. Before the TV show and cookbook fame, Garten owned a specialty foods store in East Hampton, NY, which she and her husband Jeffrey bought on a whim while living in Washington, D.C. At that time, Garten worked in the White House Office of Management and Budget as a policy analyst, but after buying the foods store, quit her job and moved to Long Island.
Mike Rowe, opera singer: Mike Rowe is best known in the U.S. for hosting the Discovery Channel’s show Dirty Jobs, but if you listen carefully, he’s also the narrator behind lots of commercials, TV specials and documentaries. But that strong, gravely voice isn’t just great for speaking. Before TV, Rowe sang with the Baltimore Opera.
Stephen King, teacher: Just imagine if your teacher was going home at night and writing horror novels and screenplays? It might make you turn in your homework on time, or stop passing notes, at least. Stephen King — the legendary writer behind Carrie and The Shining— taught high school English in Hampden, Maine, writing during the weekends and in the evenings.
Ken Jeong, doctor: Actor and comedian Ken Jeong quickly became one of the most in-demand supporting actors after cameos and memorable roles in the TV show Community and of course, The Hangover, but Jeong wasn’t a struggling actor before landing some of the biggest comedies in recent years. Knocked Up was actually Jeong’s first film, and before getting into the movie business, Jeong was an internal medicine doctor. He graduated from University of North Carolina Chapel Hill’s medical school, completed his residency in New Orleans, but then won a stand-up comedy competition and moved to LA, where he began appearing in top shows like Curb Your Enthusiasm and The Office.
Elisabeth Hasselback, shoe designer: Talk show host Elisabeth Hasselback has just been announced as a new Good Morning America contributor, but before her TV career, she worked as a shoe designer for Puma. Hasselback — then Elisabeth Filarski — graduated with an MFA from Boston College in 1999 and also appeared on Survivor: The Australian Outback during a break from Puma.
Ronald Reagan, movie star: Considered one of the most influential and widely revered presidents in U.S. history, Ronald Reagan won over the American public long before he got into politics. First working as a radio sports announcer after college, Reagan joined the movie business in the late 30s after appearing as an announcer in a film. In all, he acted in over 50 films, the last of which was released in 1964.
Grover Cleveland, sheriff and executioner: Twenty-second President of the United States Grover Cleveland was the first Democrat elected after the Civil War, but his early days in politics were less demonstrative. After losing the race for New York’s Erie County DA, he was elected sheriff for the area, and even carried out hangings personally, to save himself the $10 executioner fee.
Graham Chapman, doctor: Before Monty Python success, Chapman wrote for the BBC and worked on radio and TV series, with John Cleese and other future collaborators. But even before the entertainment business, the British actor and writer studied at the Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry. He met Cleese at this time, and together, the two wrote sketches together. While some sources say that Chapman did not practice medicine professionally, others say that he was a doctor for a few years before turning to show business full time.
Harry Truman, haberdasher: The president who dropped the A-bomb had much more humble beginnings. He was a bank clerk and bookkeeper, served in the National Guard and in WWI, and after the war, opened his own men’s haberdashery store in Kansas City, MO, with a friend.
John Harvey Kellogg, doctor: The man who started Kellogg’s brand cereal — and all their eventual offshoot products — was a doctor before he became an entrepreneur. Inspired by his commitment to health and nutrition, Kellogg was the chief physician at the Western Health Reform Institute of Battle Creek, which promoted healthy eating and a healthy lifestyle. He had nontraditional health beliefs, though: he was convinced most illnesses were caused by bowel irregularity and/or stomach disorders, or by sex (he often claimed that he and his wife of 40 years had never consummated their marriage). A health book author and lecturer, Kellogg and his brother started the Kellogg cereal company and invented wheat and corn flakes, virtually on accident, due to budget constraints and a batch of overcooked dough.
Article submitted by Online Universities – an online resource for students interested in going to college online.

Tough little planet we live on!!

At any time there are some 44,000 storms; lightning strikes the earth 100 times every second, and there are on average 35 earthquakes per day. Those are all acts of God, one may argue, but us humans don’t make it any easier on mother earth. Every year more than 2 million cases of arson is reported, and more than a million trees are chopped just to make toothpicks. Not all is gloom, however: 200 million couples make love (and 400,000 babies are born) every day.

Did You Know Leaning Tower of Pisa has never been straight?

Soon after building started in 1173, the foundation of the Pisa tower settled unevenly. Construction was stopped, and was continued only a 100 year later. It then became visibly clear that the Tower of Pisa is leaning, tilting to the south.
Since regular measuring of the tower began in 1911, the top of the tower has moved 1,2 millimetres (0,05 inch) per year. Today the top of the Tower of Pisa is some 5,3m (17,4 ft) off-center.
After the bell tower of the Cathedral of Pavia collapsed in 1989, the Consorzio Progetto Torre di Pisa (Tower of Pisa Project Consortium) commissioned engineers to stabilize the Leaning Tower. Because the Tower tilted in different directions in its first years, it is slightly curved, like a banana. Engineers are working on the footing of the Tower rather than the structure, hoping to ease the top back about 20 cm (about 8 inches). But it means that the 800-year old tower will remain leaning.
The Leaning Tower of Pisa
The Leaning Tower of Pisa stands in the Piazza dei Miracoli (Miracle Square) in the town of Pisa, Italy. There are 296 steps to the top of the Leaning Tower of Pisa.

Did you know how much does the most expensive car cost?

Did you know how much does the most expensive car cost?
The Forbes magazine has recently released the list of the most expensive cars of the year 2011, basing on the prices received from car manufactures. All the cars which have been named in the list have luxurious interior and futuristic design. The cheapest car in the list was Ferrari F70, which cost $870,000.
On the very top of the list is a car, powered by a 16-cylinder engine delivering a total horse power of 1200, it is he fastest accelerating car reaching 0-60 in 2.5 seconds. It is Bugatti Veyron EB 16.4 Super Sport, which has a top speed of 268 mph (431 km/h) (though the cars shipped to buyers are restricted to 258 mph (415 km/h). 
Bugatti Veyron, that costs $$2,400,000, remains the most powerful and the fastest car in the world today, and not just the most expensive car. It defines luxury and of course an impressive amount of money.

Did you know what astronauts eat in space?

Did you know what astronauts eat in space?
It is not so easy being an astronaut, especially if you’re a big foodie. In this case, being in space would be for you a living hell.
The food in space must be nonperishable, because there’s no opportunity to refrigerate it. Also, it must be easy to eat, because gravitation doesn’t let eating gourmet dishes in space. Astronauts can’t eat hot dishes, because in case of floating it may burn them. Moreover, they can’t even eat bread because of the crumbs, that may float around. So considering these facts, it not difficult to understand that the food they take is not the most delicious one.
It is either partially or completely dehydrated to prevent them from spoiling. Meats are exposed to radiation before they are put onboard the shuttle to give them a longer shelf life. When the astronaut is ready to eat the space food, he can add water to rehydrate the meal so that it will be edible. Not an easy work to do.
It’s estimated that astronauts eat 70 % less than people on Earth. So if you want to lose some weight, hurry to acquire astronauts’ skills.

Did you know what ADIDAS means?

Did you know what ADIDAS means?
Adidas is a major German-based sports apparel manufacturer, producing not only footwear but also bags, shirts, eyewear and other goods, related to sports. The name of the company comes from the name and surname of its founder Adi Dassler. In 1949, he took the first two syllables from his first (Adi) and last name (das) to create the name for his line of athletic shoes.
But there’s only another version referring to the meaning of the word. It’s said that ADIDAS means “All Day I Dream About Sports”. But if we carry out a little investigation on the internet, we’ll find out where this version comes from…
ADIDAS is not only a sportswear company name. It also refers to an American rock band “Korn”, which in spite of this, doesn’t have any connection with the company. On March, 1997, the band released a single, named “A.D.I.D.A.S”. The title is an acronym for the statement “All Day I Dream About Sex”. Slightly modifying the name of the song people with good imagination added another meaning to the word ADIDAS – “All Day I Dream About Sports”, which fully complies with the company.

Did you know that turtles breathe through their butts?

Did you know that turtles breathe through their butts?

Turtles breathe with their butts, along with dragonfly nymphs and sea cucumbers.
But not all kinds of turtles can make that “trick”. Only some species of turtles can do that.
These species have developed ways to pick up oxygen even
when submerged. They can nestle down underwater and slow their metabolism down so much they barely need any oxygen. They can then take a small amount of water into their cloaca, which is the all-in-one opening reptiles have for defecation, urination, reproduction, and egg-laying.
They can absorb the air in the water, then expel it and take in another small amount.
Generally turtles have amazing anaerobic capabilities, which allow them to survive on very little oxygen for prolonged periods of time. Like most reptiles, they do have lungs which take in air through the mouth and nose. But in particular species, there is a pair of sacs, or bursae that are connected to the internal portion of the cloacal opening, a single exit that acts as both the port for sexual reproduction and digestive system elimination.
One of these turtles is The Fitzroy River turtle, who can stay underwater, inhale water through the cloacal opening, and extract oxygen for its system. They also can breathe that way on land.

Which is the first country to adopt Christianity?

Which is the first country to adopt Christianity?
According to various sources the Christianity was first adopted in Roman Empire, in Armenia, in the USA and even in Iceland.
But let’s find out where exactly the Christianity was first adopted.
The Roman Empire adopted Christianity in 380 by Theodosius I, Russia – in 988, established by St. Vladimir, Iceland – in 1000 BC, and the USA was formed a few hundred years after the Christianity was established. Now…
When Jesus told the disciples to go into all the world, they really did just that. Bartholomew and Thaddeus wound up in Armenia. The evangelization of Armenia climaxed in 301, when St. Gregory the Illuminator converted king Tiridates III (A.D. 238-314), who proclaimed Christianity the state religion of Armenia.Tiridates was the first ruler to officially Christianize his people, his conversion predating the conventional date of Constantine the Great’s personal acceptance of Christianity on behalf of the Eastern Roman Empire.
Throughout their entire history, Armenian Christians have been under almost constant persecution, first by Persians, then Arabs, and then Turks. When Armenia came under the Soviet Union, they were persecuted by the Communists until Gorbachev.
So, comparing the dates of establishment we can clearly see that the first country to adopt Christianity was Armenia. Today Armenians are very proud to be the first Christian nation in the world.

Did you know there’s a temple dedicated to the tooth?

Did you know there’s a temple dedicated to the tooth?

The temple is situated in Sri Lanka, Kandy, and its real name is “Sri Dalada Maligawa”, which is translated as “The temple of the teeth”. It is famous for its carvings and the beautiful art that is unique to Sri Lanka. The most important part of the Dalada Maligawa is the octagon. The Sri Dalada Maligawa is the most sacred temple in the whole of Sri Lanka. Thousands of people line up each day to get a glimpse of its majesty.
It was built within the royal palace complex which houses the only surviving relic of Buddha, a tooth, which is venerated by Buddhists. The relic has played an important role in the local politics since ancient times, it’s believed that whoever holds the relic holds the governance of the country, which caused the ancient kings to protect it with great effort. Kandy was the capital of the Sinhalese kings.

Did You Know Valentine Day is on 14th or 15th February

Valentine's Day

Valentine’s Day originates from the ancient Roman fertility festival of Lupercalia, which was celebrated on 15 February in honor of the gods Lupercus and Faunus, as well as the legendary founders of Rome, Romulus and Remus. During the festival, young men would draw the names of women from a box, and each couple would be paired until next year’s celebration. Often they would fall in love and marry.
At around 270AD Rome was facing battles and civil uprising. The men were not keen to join the army. Emperor Claudius II believed that the men did not want to leave their loved ones and summarily canceled all marriages and engagements. Two priests, Valentine and Marius, disobeyed the decree and secretly performed marriage ceremonies. Valentine was caught on 14 February and dragged to jail. Later in the day he was clubbed to death and beheaded. It is said that, before his execution, Valentine himself had fallen in love with the jailer’s daughter. He signed his final note to her, “From your Valentine.”

Valentine’s Day
In 391AD, Emperor Theodosius I declared Christianity as the official religion of the Rome. The fertility festival was celebrated until 496AD when Pope Gelasius replaced it with a similar celebration. For patron saint of the celebration, he chose the “lovers” saint, St Valentine. He also moved the date of the celebration from the 15 February to the date of St Valentine’s death, 14 February. Through the centuries, Valentines Day became to be remembered more as the festival of love instead of a religious day. In 1969 it was dropped from the Roman Catholic calendar as a designated feast day.
Cupid and Psyche
Cupid has always played a role in the celebrations of love. Those whose hearts are pierced by his arrows fall deeply in love. In Greek mythology he was known as Eros, the young son of Aphrodite, the goddess of love and beauty. To the Romans, he was Cupid, son of Venus. But where there’s love, there often is jealousy. Venus was jealous of the beauty of Psyche, a mere mortal, and ordered Cupid to punish her (for being so beautiful). Instead, Cupid fell deeply in love and took her as his wife.
As a mortal Psyche was forbidden to look at him. Eventually her sisters convinced her to look at the handsome Cupid. As punishment, Venus demanded that she perform three difficult tasks, the last of which caused Psyche’s death. Cupid found her lifeless on the ground and removed the eternal sleep from her body. The gods, moved by their love, then granted Psyche immortality.
The symbol of Cupid became part of Valentines Day only recently. Cupid is still around shooting his arrows. Psyche represents the struggles of the human soul.

Happy Valentine’s!
Esther Howland, the woman who produced the first commercial American valentines in the 1840s, sold a then mind-boggling $5,000 in cards her first year of business. Today, over 1 billion valentine cards are sent in the US – second in number only to Christmas cards.

The rose is the symbol of love, but the flower symbol for February actually is the violet.
A rose is the symbol for June: meaning of flowers

Valentine’s Day originates from the ancient Roman festival of fertility, which was held annually on 15 February. The 14th of February was celebrated in honor of Juno, the queen of the Roman gods and goddesses. Juno was also the goddess of women and marriage.


Blu-ray and DVD formats

Blu-ray, DVD+R, DVD+RW, DVD-RAM, DVD-R, DVD-RW, DVD-ROM; which format is compatible with your system?
Developed by Sony, Blu-ray Disc (BD) is a next-generation optical disc format meant for storage of high-definition video and high-density data. The Blu-ray standard was jointly developed by a group of consumer electronics and PC companies called the Blu-ray Disc Association (BDA). Compared to the HD DVD format, its main competitor, Blu-ray has more information capacity per layer, 25 instead of 15 gigabytes.
Blu-ray gets its name from the shorter wavelength (405 nm) of a “blue” (technically blue-violet) laser that allows it to store substantially more data than a DVD, which has the same physical dimensions but uses a longer wavelength (650 nm) red laser.
These formats are supported by Panasonic, Toshiba, Apple Computer, Hitachi, NEC, Pioneer, Samsung and Sharp. These formats are also supported by the DVD Forum.
A DVD-Recordable or DVD-R is an optical disc with a larger storage capacity than a CD-R, typically 4.7 GB (4.38 GB) instead of 700 MB, although the capacity of the original standard was 3.95 GB. Pioneer developed the 8.54 GB dual layer version, launched in 2005. A DVD-R can be written to only once, whereas a DVD-RW (DVD-rewritable) can be rewritten multiple times. The DVD-R format was developed by Pioneer in autumn of 1997. It is supported by most DVD players, and is approved by the DVD Forum.
DVD-R discs are composed of two 0.6 mm polycarbonate discs, bonded with an adhesive to each other. One contains the laser guiding groove and is coated with the recording dye and a silver, silver alloy or gold reflector. The other one (for single-sided discs) is an ungrooved “dummy” disc to assure mechanical stability of the sandwich structure, and compatibility with the compact disc standard geometry which requires a total disc thickness of about 1.2 mm. Double-sided discs have two grooved, recordable disc sides, and require the user to flip the disc to access the other side. Compared to a CD’s 1.2 mm of polycarbonate, a DVD’s laser beam only has to penetrate 0.6 mm of plastic in order to reach the dye recording layer, which allows the lens to focus the beam to a smaller spot size, which is key for writing smaller pits.
In a DVD-R, the addressing (the determination of location of the laser beam on the disc) is done with additional pits and lands (called land pre-pits) in the areas between the grooves. The groove on a DVD-R disc has a constant wobble frequency used for motor control etc.
A DVD-RW is a rewritable optical disc with equal storage capacity to a DVD-R, typically 4.7 GB. The format was developed by Pioneer in November 1999 and has been approved by the DVD Forum. Unlike DVD-RAM, it is playable in about 75% of conventional DVD players.
The primary advantage of DVD-RW over DVD-R is the ability to erase and rewrite to a DVD-RW disc. According to Pioneer, DVD-RW discs may be written to about 1,000 times before needing replacement, making them comparable with the CD-RW standard. DVD-RW discs are commonly used for volatile data, such as backups or collections of files. They are also increasingly used for home DVD video recorders.
Unlike DVD-R, the DVD-RW standard has always dictated a capacity of 4.7 GB. One competing rewritable format is DVD+RW. Hybrid drives that can handle both, often labeled “DVD±RW”, are very popular since there is not yet a single standard for recordable DVDs.
The recording layer in DVD-RW and DVD+RW is not an organic dye, but a special phase change metal alloy, often GeSbTe. The alloy can be switched back and forth between a crystalline phase and an amorphous phase, changing the reflectivity, depending on the power of the laser beam. Data can thus be written, erased and re-written.
DVD+R and DVD+RW formats are supported by Philips, Sony, Hewlett-Packard, Dell, Ricoh, Yamaha and others.
DVD+R is a writable optical disc with 4.7 GB (4.38 GiB) of storage capacity. The format was developed by a coalition of corporations, known as the DVD+RW Alliance, in mid 2002. Since the DVD+R format is a competing format to the DVD-R format, which is developed by the DVD Forum, it has not been approved by the DVD Forum, which claims that the DVD+R format is not an official DVD format.
In October of 2003, it was demonstrated that double layer technology could be used with a DVD+R disc to nearly double the capacity to 8.5 GB per disc. Manufacturers have incorporated this technology into commercial devices since mid-2004.
Unlike DVD+RW discs, DVD+R discs can only be written to once. Because of this, DVD+R discs are suited to applications such as nonvolatile data storage, audio, or video.
The DVD+R format is divergent from the DVD-R format. Hybrid drives that can handle both, often labeled “DVD±RW”, are very popular since there is not yet a single standard for recordable DVDs. There are a number of significant technical differences between the dash and plus formats, and although most consumers would not notice the difference, the plus format is considered by some to be better engineered.
Like other plus media, it is possible to use bitsetting to increase the compatibility of DVD+R media.
A DVD+RW is a rewritable optical disc with equal storage capacity to a DVD+R, typically 4.7 GB. The format was developed by a coalition of corporations, known as the DVD+RW Alliance, in late 1997, although the standard was abandoned until 2001, when it was heavily revised and the capacity increased from 2.8 GB to 4.7 GB. Credit for developing the standard is often attributed unilaterally to Philips, one of the members of the DVD+RW Alliance. Although DVD+RW has not yet been approved by the DVD Forum, the format is too popular for manufacturers to ignore, and as such, DVD+RW discs are playable in 3/4 of today’s DVD players.
Unlike the DVD-RW format, DVD+RW was made a standard earlier than DVD+R. One competing rewritable format is DVD-RW. Hybrid drives that can handle both, often labeled “DVD±RW”, are very popular since there is not yet a single standard for recordable DVDs.
DVD+RW discs can be rewritten about 1,000 times, making them comparable with the CD-RW standard. DVD+RW discs are commonly used for volatile data, such as backups or collections of files. However, they are not as widely used for home DVD video recorders as DVD-RW, primarily because they were originally designed for storage of data, rather than of video. Of late, a number of cheaper and “no-name” manufacturers have started releasing DVD recorders using the DVD+RW format rather than DVD-RW, leaving the branded manufacturers (except Philips of course) to fly the DVD-RW flag. For computer use, the DVD-R non-rewritable variant of DVD-RW is vastly more popular than DVD+R, and mail order or bulk pricing of DVD-R media is significantly cheaper than DVD+R.
DVD+RW disks support “lossless linking”, which allows re-writing and editing of content without requiring a full erasure of the disc.
The recording layer in DVD-RW and DVD+RW is not an organic dye, but a special phase change metal alloy, often GeSbTe. The alloy can be switched back and forth between a crystalline phase and an amorphous phase, changing the reflectivity, depending on the power of the laser beam. Data can thus be written, erased and re-written.
Other DVD Formats
If you thought a DVD weas a just a DVD, think again. There are a number of different formats vying for a piece of the lucarative DVD and home entertainment market.
Hybrid drives that handle both formats are labeled DVD±R and Super Multi (which includes DVD-RAM support) and are very popular.
A DVD format wherein DVD-RAM discs can be recorded and erased repeatedly but are only compatible with devices manufactured by the companies that support the DVD-RAM format. DVD-RAM discs are typically housed in cartridges. DVD-R, DVD-RW and DVD-RAM are supported by Panasonic, Toshiba, Apple Computer, Hitachi, NEC, Pioneer, Samsung and Sharp. These formats are also supported by the DVD Forum.
DVD-R DL (Dual Layer) (Also Known as DVD-R9) is a derivative of the DVD-R format standard. DVD-R DL discs employ two recordable dye layers, each capable of storing nearly the 4.7 GB of a single-layer disc, almost doubling the total disc capacity to 8.54 GB. Discs can be read in many DVD devices (older units are less compatible) and can only be written using DVD±RW DL burners.
Dual layer technology is supported by a range of manufacturers including Dell, HP, Verbatim, Philips, Sony, Yamaha and others. As the name suggests, dual layer technology provides two individual recordable layers on a single-sided DVD disc. Dual Layer is more commonly called Double Layer in the consumer market, and can be seen written asor DVD-R DL.
DVD-RA is used for authoring and then used for mastering DVD video or data and is not typically available to the general public.
A high definition format developed by Toshiba. It has a smaller capacity than Blu-ray, but is similar to existing formats, meaning multi-compatibility might be easier to achieve. HD-DVD initially received the backing of major film studios but eventually they supported the Blu-ray format. In February 2008, Toshiba stopped making HD-DVDs.
Taiwanese R&D organisation, Opto-Electronics & Systems Laboratories, has produced an alternative to HD-DVD and Blu-Ray, called HD-DVD-1. HD-DVD-1 is more closely related to HD-DVD than Blu-ray, with a 17GB capacity. However, there is another format (tentatively called HD-DVD-2) which has similarities to Blu-ray.
Holographic Versatile Disc (HVD) is an advanced optical disc technology still in the research stage which would greatly increase storage over Blu-ray and HD DVD optical disc systems These disks have the capacity to hold up to 3.9 terabytes of information, which is approximately 160 times the capacity of single-layer Blu-ray Discs. The HVD also has a transfer rate of 1 Gbit/s.
China’s own digital video disc format is called Enhanced Video Disc or EVD. Format uses blue-laser discs, just like AOD and Blu-Ray do, but the exact capacity is not known at the moment. The most interesting part of the disc’s specifications is in its video compression method. EVD uses proprietary video codecs developed by American On2 Technologies, called VP5 and VP6 that deliver significantly better video quality with lower bitrate levels than the MPEG-2 used in DVD-Video discs.
FVD, or Forward Versatile Disc, is an offshoot of DVD developed in Taiwan jointly by the Advanced Optical Storage Research Alliance (AOSRA) and the Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) as a more inexpensive alternative for high-definition content. The disc is similar in structure to a DVD, in that pit length is the same and a red laser is used to read it, but the track width has been shortened slightly to allow the disc to have 5.4GB of storage per layer as opposed to 4.7GB for a standard DVD. The specification allows for up to three layers for total of 15GB in storage. WMV9 is used as the video codec allowing for 135 minutes of 720p video on a dual layer disc and 135 minutes of 1080i video on a 3-layer disc. FVD uses AAES copy protection which is one of the same schemes used in both HD-DVD and Blu-Ray discs. FVD is not expected to be marketed outside of Taiwan.
An FVD disc can either be a FVD-1 or FVD-2 disc: FVD-1: The coding format of the first-generation of FVD adopts 8/16 modulation codes (same as DVD). FVD-2: The second-generation will use the more efficient 8/15 coding for increasing the ECC capability (to avoid DVD patents).


Did You Know Can openers invented 48 years after cans

ans were opened with a hammer and chisel before the advent of can openers. The tin canister, or can, was invented in 1810 by a Londoner, Peter Durand. The year before, French confectioner, Nicolas Appert, had introduced the method of canning food (as it became known) by sealing the food tightly inside a glass bottle or jar and then heating it. He could not explain why the food stayed fresh but his bright idea won him the 12,000-francs prize that Napoleon offered in 1795 for preserving food. Durand supplied the Royal Navy with canned heat-preserved food while Appert would help Napoleon’s army march on its stomach.
Tin canning was not widely adopted until 1846, when a method was invented to increase can production from 6 in an hour to 60. Still, there were no can openers yet and the products labels would read: “cut around on the top near to outer edge with a chisel and hammer.”
Can opener
The can opener was invented in 1858 by American Ezra Warnet. There also is a claim that Englishman Robert Yeates invented the can opener in 1855. But the can opener did not become popular until, ten years later, it was given away for free with canned beef. (Canned pet food was introduced by James Spratt in 1865.)
The well-known wheel-style opener was invented in 1925. Beer in a can was launched in 1935. The easy-open can lid was invented by Ermal Cleon Fraze in 1959.
Aluminum cans
Since 1972, some 64 million tons of aluminum cans (about 3 trillion cans) have been produced. Placed end-to-end, they could stretch to the moon about a thousand times. Still, cans represent less than 1% of solid waste material – about one quarter of all cans are recycled. Worldwide, some 9 million cans are recycled every hour. Which is good news, considering that it takes a can about 200 years to degrade if you bury it. It takes paper about a month to bio-degrade, a woolen sock about a year, and plastic possibly hundreds of years.
Recycling cans saves 95% of the energy required to make aluminum from ore, or the equivalent of 18 million barrels of oil, or 10.8 billion kilowatt hours. Used aluminum cans that are recycled return to store shelves within 60 days.


Did You Know Famous products invented by different people at the same time

Great minds thinks alike. When Johann Vaaler patented his paperclip in 1901, there already were similar designs by William Middlebrook and Cornelius Brosnan. Vaaler is credited with being the first to design a paperclip because of drawings he made as early as 1899.
In 1669, the principles of differential calculus were determined by Sir Isaac Newton in England and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz in Germany at about the same time. (The name is derived from the Latin word for “pebble,” referring to the use of pebbles for counting.)
One hour before Alexander Graham Bell registered his patent for the telephone in 1876, Elisha Gray patented his design. After years of litigation, the patent went to Bell.
Gray invented the first electronic musical instrument. He had accidentally discovered that he could control sound from a self-vibrating electromagnetic circuit and in doing so invented a basic single note oscillator. The “Musical Telegraph” used steel reeds whose oscillations were created and transmitted over a telephone line by electromagnets. At the same time, around 1874, Bell had also designed an experimental “Electric Harp” for speech transmission over a telephone line using similar technology to Gray’s.
At 10h35 on Friday 17 December 1903, Orville Wright took the Flyer that he and his brother Wilbur built into the air for what has come to be known as the first powered flight. Earlier, unbeknownst to them, Gustave Whitehead and Richard Pearse were also experimenting with flying machines. Who actually took first to the sky remains a controversy.
In 1926 in Scotland, John Logie Baird demonstrated a machine that transmits movie pictures using radio technology, calling it a “televisor.” It was based on a 1884 idea by German Paul Nipkow. At the same time, Philo Fansworth was toiling away in San Francisco on his concept for television. The two men met a few months later, and Baird had to agree that Farnsworth’s electronic design was the better. They weren’t the only ones working on a TV model, though. Vladmir Zworykin, a Russian immigrant to New York, was working on athode-ray tubes, with the backing of David Sarnoff, the tech-savvy marketer who started NBC. In 1928, Farnsworth’s television sets made it to the market first, at $75 apiece.
Without the one knowing about the other, Jack Kilby from Texas and Robert Noyce from California invented the integrated circuit in 1958. However, their idea is not new – Briton GW Dummer had suggested such a design in 1952.
Great designs did not only bring great fun, they brought great growth. In the 1400s, global income rose only 0,1% per year. Today it often tops 5%. For the past 200 years, inventors often ranked as some of the richest in the world: Colt, Deere, Nobel, Goodyear, Edison, Bell, Eastman, Daimler, Gates, to name a few. In the 1990′s companies spent more on communication than on industrial, farming, mining and construction machinery.


Did You Know Who invented the light bulb?

Who invented the light bulb? No, it wasn’t Thomas Edison. Light bulbs – in particular Starr’s electric lamp – were in use 50 years before Edison applied for the patent in 1879. In addition, British inventor Joseph Swan was awarded a light bulb patent the previous year. Edison went on to make big buck from the light bulb but Swan sued Edison for infringement and won. As part of the settlement, Edison was forced to take Swan in as a partner but later bought him out in the company that was to become General Electric.
In 1883, the US Patent Office ruled that Edison’s patent on the light bulb might have been based on that of William Sawyer and were invalid. It is not that Edison stole the idea: there are many examples of different people thinking up the same concept at more-or-less the same time.
Thomas Alva Edison (1847 – 1931) certainly was not a lazy guy. He filed 1,093 patents, including those for electric railways and the movie camera. When he died in 1931, he held 34 patents for the telephone, 141 for batteries, 150 for the telegraph and 389 patents for electric light and power. Unlike Leonardo da Vinci who never built the inventions he designed, Edison was not just a great theorist. He coined the phrase: “Genius is 1% inspiration and 99% perspiration.” He also said: “There are no rules here. We’re trying to get work done.”


Did You Know Electricity first discovered 2 500 years ago

Electric shock
Electricity was first discovered about 2 500 years ago. The Greek scientist Thales of Miletus (c. 620 BCE – c. 546 BC) noticed that a piece of amber (the hard fossilized sap from trees) attracted straw or feathers when he rubbed it with a cloth. The word “electricity” comes from the Greek word for amber – “elektron”. Thales is also known as the father of philosophy.
The word “electric” was first used in 1600 by William Gilbert, a doctor to Queen Elizabeth I. He carried out experiments and discovered that materials such as diamond, glass and wax behaved in a similar way to amber.
Count Alessandro Volta invented the first battery in the 18th century. He called it a “voltaic pile.” It consisted of a pile of zinc and silver or copper discs separated by pads moistened with an acid solution. The unit for measuring a unit of electricity, a volt, is named after Count Volta.
During the 1860s, George Leclanche developed a battery which did not use dangerous acids, known as the dry-cell battery. The batteries we use in flash lights, portable radios, etc. are based on Leclanche’s design.
Every year thousands of people are electrocuted but few die of it directly. Instead, more people die in the almost 10 000 fires that are caused by overloaded receptacles. Don’t overload your plugs and limit the use of extension cords by using them only for temporary operations.


Did You Know Alexander Graham Bell disliked telephones

Alexander Graham Bell

When the telephone was introduced in 1876, a Western Union internal memo noted: “This ‘telephone’ has too many shortcomings to be seriously considered as a means of communication. The device is of no value to us.” In 1879, W. H. Preece, a Post Office engineer, testified to a House of Commons Committee that Britain had little use of the telephone because: “Here we have a superabundance of messengers, errand boys and things of that kind”
Even Alexander Graham Bell, who was awarded the patent for the invention of the telephone, disliked telephones so much that he refused to have one in his office. But that should not come as a surprise because both his mother and wife was deaf and perhaps Bell – who also was a speech teacher to the deaf – was only considering them.
When Bell passed away in 1922, every telephone served by the Bell system in the USA and Canada was silent for one minute.
How many telephones in the world?
According to the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) there are some 1.4 billion fixed lines phones and about 5.3 billion mobile cellular subscriptions.
More calls are made on Mother’s Day than any other day but more reverse charge calls (collect calls) are made on Father’s Day than any other day.
Almost 2 billion people (of the almost 7 billion world population) use the Internet, either via computer or a mobile phone.


Did You Know Mercedes cars are named after an Austrian girl

Mercedes Jellinek
In 1897, Austrian businessman Emil Jellinek, traveled from his home in Nice, France to purchase a car from the Daimler factory in Cannstatt, Germany. On his return to the French Riviera, his sporting Daimler Phoenix caused such a sensation that he decided to enter it into a local touring competition, under the name of “Mercedes” after his favorite 9 year old daughter. Realizing the business potential for the new car, he not only placed an order for 36 more, but also secured the franchise for selling them in several countries. Gottlieb Daimler also agreed to having them sold under the name of “Mercedes.”
The Mercedes trade name was registered after Daimler’s death in 1900 and the 3-pointed star became the trade mark. Daimler had once drawn the emblem on a postcard to his wife, the star symbolizing the growth of the business into transport on land, sea and air.
For Karl Benz, a name for his automobile was simple: he enclosed his name in a cogwheel to exemplify the solidness of his engineering works at Mannheim. The cogwheel later became a laurel wreath.
After the First World War the Daimler and Benz companies worked closer together, generally advertising on the same posters. They amalgamated in 1926, combining the laurel wreath and 3-pointed star as their trade mark.
Interestingly, although Gottlieb Daimler and Karl Benz were two of the major pioneers in the automotive industry, they probably never met, even though they lived only 100km (60 miles) from each other in Germany. Daimler passed away in 1900. Daimler-Benz amalgamated in 1926.


In Love With an Angel

I shared love with an angel
From heaven she was sent to me
She was my dream come true
So pure and so devine was she.
There she stood in her doorway
In nothing but her gown
Such an incredibly beautiful lady
Her eyes so amazing, dark and brown.
The pure velvet sound of her voice
A glance of those beautiful eyes
Touched the very heart of my soul
A sensational feeling of butterflies.

Her womanly spell and persuasuive charms
Her feminine ways so enchanting
She captured me for all of my days
As we shared love so magical and captivating.
She made me feel so alive
She gave me such wonderful imagination
She was passion, love and romance
My angel was my inspiration.

To feel the touch of her silky soft skin
And hold her delicate hand in mine
A smile and a kiss from her luscious lips
My heart it yearns, aches and so does pine.
My heart is stolen for all eternity
My love forever hers to keep
We shared a love so amazing
A love so wonderful, magical, tender and deep.

Our love cherished forever, never to forget
For I could never love another.

Does the circle appear to move?

Does the circle appear to move?


Which finger is pointing at the exact middle of the shape's height?

Which finger is pointing at the exact middle of the shape's height?
ahh!! Now check your answer using a scale


Can you quickly spot the faulty read-out?

Can you quickly spot the faulty read-out?


Are there any grey dots?

Are there any grey dots?

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